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MELAB

The Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) is an intermediate to advanced level standardized examination for adult nonnative speakers of English. The MELAB is recognized by thousands of colleges, universities, and professional organizations as evidence of high intermediate to low advanced English language proficiency, for academic or professional purposes.

Test Description

The MELAB is a standardized intermediate to advanced level English as a foreign language (EFL) examination and is administered monthly at authorized test centers in various countries.

Test Purpose

The purpose of the MELAB is to evaluate English language proficiency of adult nonnative speakers of English who will need to use English for academic purposes at the college and university level, or for professional certification. The MELAB assesses linguistic, discoursal, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic elements of the English language. The four component skills of listening, reading, writing, and speaking are evaluated through a combination of tasks.

Test Content

Stimuli in the MELAB reflect a range of situations likely to be met in most countries. The Common European Framework (CEFR)[1] identifies four basic domains (see below), namely personal, public, occupational, and educational (Council of Europe, 2001: 48–49). The MELAB focuses primarily on the educational domain with a secondary focus on the public and occupational domains. Various topics are used across the three domains, some of which may be used more in certain domains than others.

Personal home settings (house, rooms, or any private space) and
interactions or settings among family members or social networks (friends, acquaintances)
Public public spaces (streets, shops, restaurants, sports, or entertainment venues)
and other social networks outside the home
Occupational workplace settings (offices, workshops, conferences), etc.
Educational schools, colleges, classrooms, residence halls, etc.

Topics

A concerted effort is made to make sure topical content in the MELAB is not biased. Hambleton and Rodgers[2] (1995, para. 1) define bias as “the presence of some characteristic of an item that results in differential performance for two individuals of the same ability but from different ethnic, sex, cultural, or religious groups.” They further note that another characteristic related to bias is offensiveness, which can obstruct the purpose of a test item. They explain that “while the presence of such material may not make the item more difficult for the test taker, it may cause him or her to become ‘turned off,’ and result in lowered performance” (op. cit., para. 7). Consequently, MELAB material is scrutinized to ensure that it is not inflammatory, emotionally upsetting, or controversial. This is meant to decrease the potential for bias.

Score Reporting

After a test taker takes the MELAB, two different reports are sent out: official score reports are sent to the indicated institutions, and unofficial score reports are issued to the test taker by the test center. Tests are processed within four to six weeks after CaMLA receives the tests from the test center. Scores are then sent by first-class mail to the institutions requested, which receive the reports within seven to eight weeks after the test was taken. Rush service can be ordered to speed scoring and reporting.

All score reports include scores of performance on sections 1 (writing), 2 (listening), and 3 (GCVR) of the MELAB (see information about the format below). Scores on sections 1, 2, and 3 are then averaged to produce a MELAB final score. If the test taker took the optional speaking test, the speaking score is also reported on the score report. MELAB reports also include brief biographical information, the test date, and test location. Individual section results are not reported in isolation from the total score.

Once scoring is complete, the test taker will receive one unofficial copy of the MELAB score report, issued by the test center where the MELAB was administered. Official MELAB score reports will be sent to up to two universities or institutions that the test taker listed at the bottom of the Official Identification Form before taking the test.

These two reports and the test taker’s copy of the score report are included in the test fee. The test taker must list the name and the complete address of the institution(s) to which the scores are to be sent. Without written permission of the test taker, score reports will not be released. The test taker may indicate that scores should be released only if the final score is at or above a certain number.

CaMLA sends all official MELAB score reports directly to the universities and institutions. Institutions are instructed not to accept unofficial copies or photocopies of MELAB score reports. Test-taker copies of score reports are not considered valid. The test taker should make sure that the institution(s) he/she is interested in will accept MELAB scores as evidence of English language proficiency. If there are any problems with scores being accepted, contact CaMLA and we will send the institution further information on the MELAB and help them interpret the MELAB scores.

If more than two sent score reports are needed, the test taker will need to attach an additional list to the Official Identification Form. These additional reports will incur a fee. It is also possible to request additional score reports after the test taker has received the score report. To request these additional score reports, the test taker will fill out the score request form and mail it to us along with a check or money order. If payment is by credit card, the form with credit card information can be faxed. Only the most recent score will be sent. CaMLA will not report speaking test scores unless the speaking test was included in the most recent administration.


[1]   Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available here.

[2]   Hambleton, R. K., & Rodgers, J. H. (1995). Item bias review. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 4(6). Available here.


Format and Administration

The MELAB tests writing, listening, and reading. There is an optional speaking test. The test is divided into four separate sections: a writing test, a listening test, a GCVR test (grammar, cloze, vocabulary, and reading), as well as the optional speaking test. The table below presents the format and content of the MELAB.

Section Time Description Number of Items
Writing 30 minutes Test takers write an essay based on one of two topic choices. 1 task
Listening 35–40 minutes Part 1 (multiple choice)
A short recorded question or statement is accompanied by three printed responses. Test takers choose the statement that conveys a reasonable answer or response.
18
Part 2 (multiple choice)
A recorded conversation is accompanied by three printed statements. Test takers choose the statement that means about the same thing as what is heard.
22
Part 3 (multiple choice)
Four recorded interviews, such as those that might be heard on the radio, are each followed by recorded comprehension questions. The questions and answer choices are printed in the test booklet. Test takers choose the correct answer from the choices.
20
Grammar
Cloze
Vocabulary
Reading
80 minutes Grammar (multiple choice)
An incomplete sentence is followed by a choice of four words or phrases to complete it. Only one choice is grammatically correct.
32
Cloze (multiple choice)
Two passages with deletions are followed by choices of words and phrases to complete the text. Test takers must choose the word or phrase that best fills the blank in terms of grammar and meaning.
24
Vocabulary (multiple choice)
An incomplete sentence is followed by a choice of four words or phrases to complete it. Test takers must choose the option that best completes the sentence in terms of meaning.
31
Reading (multiple choice)
Four reading passages are followed by comprehension questions. Test takers choose the correct answer from the printed answer choices.
23
Speaking 15 minutes Test takers engage in a conversation with an examiner

The MELAB Speaking Test section is offered at some but not all test centers. It is administered separately from the other sections, either before or after the written test administration. The writing, listening, and GCVR sections are administered together in a single sitting. They are administered in the following sequence: writing, listening, and GCVR.


Listening Section

The MELAB listening section has been designed to assess the comprehension of aural English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference:

B1: Can understand straightforward factual information about common everyday or job related topics, identifying both general messages and specific details, provided speech is clearly articulated in a generally familiar accent. Can understand the main points of clear standard speech on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure etc., including short narratives.

B2: Can understand standard spoken language, live or broadcast, on both familiar and unfamiliar topics normally encountered in personal, social, academic or vocational life. Only extreme background noise, inadequate discourse structure and/or idiomatic usage influences the ability to understand.

C1: Can understand enough to follow extended speech on abstract and complex topics beyond his/her own field, though he/she may need to confirm occasional details, especially if the accent is unfamiliar. Can understand the main ideas of propositionally and linguistically complex speech on both concrete and abstract topics delivered in a standard dialect, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can follow extended speech and complex lines of argument provided the topic is reasonably familiar, and the direction of the talk is sign-posted by explicit markers. Can recognise a wide range of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms, appreciating register shifts.

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 66)

Format of the Listening Section

Type of Task

The MELAB listening section contains 60 items in 3 parts:

Part 1 A short recorded question or statement is accompanied by three possible responses. Test takers choose the statement that is a reasonable response.
(multiple choice)
18 items
Part 2 A recorded conversation is accompanied by three printed options. Test takers choose the option which means about the same thing as what is heard. (multiple choice) 22 items
Part 3 Four recorded interviews, such as those that might be heard on the radio, are each followed by recorded comprehension questions. The questions and answer choices are printed in the test booklet. Test takers choose the correct answer from the choices. (multiple choice) 20 items

Duration

The listening section lasts 35 to 40 minutes.

MELAB Listening Subskills

The abilities that L2 listeners access when focusing on specific listening purposes are referred to as (listening) subskills. These form three subgroups of listening skills—global, local, and inferential—and include (among others):

Global
  • understanding main idea
  • identifying speaker’s purpose
  • synthesizing ideas from different parts of the stimulus
Local
  • identifying supporting detail
  • understanding vocabulary
  • synthesizing details
  • recognizing restatement
Inferential
  • understanding rhetorical function
  • making an inference
  • inferring supporting detail
  • understanding pragmatic implications

Design of MELAB Listening Items

Format of the Input

Part 1
The aural input for each item comprises a minimally contextualized, single-sentence stem formulated as a statement and lasting up to 4 seconds.

Listening Part 1 Example

Male voice: How much effort do you think Susan actually put into her presentation?

Part 2
The aural input for each item is a short conversation between two speakers comprising up to four turns and lasting up to 15 seconds.

Listening Part 2 Example

Male voice: Good afternoon. Granite Creek Water Company. How may I help you?

Female voice: I was wondering about this month’s bill. I think I might’ve been overcharged.

Male voice:  One moment while I connect you with billing.

Part 3
The aural input for each item set is longer listening passages in the form of radio interviews. These last 3 to 4 minutes and involve up to four speakers.

Listening Part 3 Example

Voice 1: Unlike many insects, monarch butterflies cannot survive the long, cold North American winters. When it gets cold, monarchs that live in the western United States travel a short distance to the warmer climate of California’s coast. However, those that live in the eastern and central parts of the United States must fly much farther. Every fall they migrate thousands of miles to reach forests in Mexico. Alex Johnson reports.

Voice 2: Researchers have found that monarch butterflies are extremely picky about the habitat in which they live. For example, they lay their eggs on only one type of plant: milkweed. They’re also very sensitive to variations in daylight and temperature. They can’t live too far south because there’s no milkweed . . . and up north, the winters are too cold for them to survive. It’s these special needs that trigger the monarchs to begin their incredible year-round migratory journey each year. Butterfly expert Laura Baxter is here to talk about monarchs.

Voice 3:  The monarchs’ migratory journey is unique because one butterfly does not complete the cycle by itself. Instead, monarchs complete the cycle through reproduction. For example, in late spring, monarchs that have spent the winter in Mexico fly north to the United States, where they lay their eggs and die. Once the larvae from the eggs have molted into butterflies and the weather warms, these monarchs fly north. They live for two to six weeks before they mate, lay eggs, and die. The monarchs continue this cycle throughout the summer. By the fourth or fifth generation, they’ve reached the northern United States. But these generations of monarchs are different from the ones that started the cycle. They delay breeding and fly south as the weather becomes cooler. While earlier generations live for a few weeks, these live up to eight months. By November, they arrive in a Mexican forest, where they stay until the days get warmer and they start the cycle over again.

Voice 2: This means that the monarchs that return to Mexico each fall are the great-great grandchildren of the previous year’s migration. It’s really amazing that they keep going back to the same place. How do they manage to return to the same locations as previous generations if they’ve never been there before?

Voice 3: It is amazing. Although we don’t fully understand how they do it, we do know that monarchs use a combination of instincts and the ability to navigate by the sun. Their search for unique habitats influences where they go. The conditions monarchs need to survive the winter drive them toward Mexico’s forests. There, they find the perfect combination of warmth, cool breezes, protection from rain and snow, and high altitudes. These favorable conditions allow them to rest, using very little energy.

Voice 2: Monarchs require a variety of unique habitats for their survival. Logging and deforestation, the use of pesticides, and the extermination of milkweed plants could make these great butterflies disappear, so we must be careful to preserve the areas in which they live.

Format of the Response Options

Part 1
The aural input is followed by three printed response options. Test takers choose the appropriate response to what they have heard. Each answer choice is approximately the same length.

Part 2
The aural input is followed by three printed response options. Test takers choose the option that conveys the same meaning as what was heard, or that is true based upon the conversation. Each answer choice is approximately the same length.

Part 3
Each conversation is followed by 5 to 7 multiple-choice items. The items comprise a question and three options. The conversational exchange and questions are presented aurally via audio recording and are heard once. The questions and options are visible to the test taker while listening to the conversation.

Evaluation of the MELAB Listening Section

The listening section is scored automatically by computer. There is only one correct answer for each item.


Grammar Subsection

The MELAB grammar subsection has been designed to assess knowledge of the grammatical accuracy of written English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference:

B1: Communicates with reasonable accuracy in familiar contexts; generally good control though with noticeable mother tongue influence. Errors occur, but it is clear what he/she is trying to express. Uses reasonably accurately a repertoire of frequently used “routines” and patterns associated with more predictable situations.

B2: Good grammatical control; occasional “slips” or non-systematic errors and minor flaws in sentence structure may still occur, but they are rare and can often be corrected in retrospect. Shows a relatively high degree of grammatical control.

C1: Consistently maintains a high degree of grammatical accuracy; errors are rare and difficult to spot.

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 114)

Format of the Grammar Subsection

Type of Task

The MELAB grammar subsection is part of the larger GCVR section. There are 32 grammar items.

Duration

The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes.

MELAB Grammar Subskills

MELAB grammar items focus on a variety of grammatical features observed in written American English. It is assumed that test takers have the ability to consistently maintain “a high degree of grammatical accuracy” (Council of Europe, 2001: 114); this entails familiarity with grammatical features at the more difficult end of the complexity spectrum, which tend to be “late-acquired,” or to take time to be mastered (Collins et al., 2009).[1]

Design of MELAB Grammar Items

Format of the Input

Each MELAB grammar item is 1 to 2 sentences, up to 20 words total, from which a word or phrase has been removed. Each item can test one or more grammatical features.

The wording of MELAB grammar items is intended to reflect, as closely as possible, language use in real-life situations and provide a representative sample of different, frequently observed genres in written English.

Format of the Response Options

Four answer choices are provided, one of which is the correct answer. All the incorrect options are grammatical in isolation from the input sentence.

Evaluation of the MELAB Grammar Subsection

The GCVR section (including the grammar items) is scored automatically by computer. There is only one correct answer for each item. Correct answers receive one point. Incorrect answers receive zero.


[1]  Collins, L., Trofimovich, P., White, J., Carsodo, W. & Horst, M. (2009). Some Input on the easy/difficult grammar question: An empirical study. Modern Language Journal, 99, 3, 336-353.


Cloze Subsection

The MELAB cloze subsection has been designed to assess test takers’ language knowledge and abilities of written English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference (see Grammar Subsection Specifications, Vocabulary Subsection Specifications, and Reading Subsection Specifications for details).

Format of the Cloze Subsection

Type of Task

The MELAB cloze subsection is part of the larger GCVR section. There are two cloze passages, the first followed by 10 and the second by 14 items (making a total of 24 items).

Duration

The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes.

MELAB Cloze Subskills

MELAB cloze sets intend to measure the test taker’s ability to:

  • select the best word (or phrase) to restore the intended meaning to a chunk of text;
  • identify the correct grammatical form of a word (or phrase) for the blank; and,
  • identify the most appropriate content word (or phrase) for the blank.

Cloze Example

Once thought to be signs from the heavens of future events, comets now are understood to be relatively simple astronomical phenomena. Comets are celestial bodies of small mass (1) mainly of gases. They consist of a nucleus of ice and other similar (2)materials, followed by an extensive tail. The tail is formed (3) the comet approaches the sun, as particles from the edges of the nucleus are (4) off. Comets have traditionally been regarded as (5) of both good fortune and imminent (6). People have often pondered the nature of the events that these celestial bodies have been (7) to bring. In 1066 AD, a comet appeared, which greatly concerned King Harold of England. He was (8) towards an armed conflict with William of Normandy. His men wondered (9) this comet was a sign of victory or defeat. The Normans answered this question on Saturday, October 14, 1066. Late that afternoon, after a fierce battle at Hastings, King Harold (10) dead among many hundreds of his soldiers. William had all but conquered England and changed the course of world history.

Design of MELAB Cloze Items

Format of the Input

Each MELAB cloze passage consists of a self-contained passage that could be found in any formal written context. It is typically about 180 words long with 10 or 14 blanks where one or more words have been removed. Each blank should elicit a “tip-of-the-tongue” effect, in which test takers should ideally be able to mentally fill in the gap even before reading the options.

Format of the Response Options

Four answer choices are provided, one of which is the correct answer. Wherever possible, the correct answer is not apparent until the reader finishes the sentence or continues to the next sentence of the passage.

Evaluation of the MELAB Cloze Section

The GCVR section (including the cloze items) is scored automatically by computer. There is only one correct answer for each item. Correct answers receive one point. Incorrect answers receive zero.


Vocabulary Subsection

The MELAB vocabulary subsection has been designed to assess the lexical range and control of written English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference. The descriptors include:

B1: Has sufficient vocabulary to express him/herself in everyday topics

B2: Has a sufficient range of language to be able to express viewpoints on most general topics

C1: Has a good command of a broad range of language

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 110)

Format of the Vocabulary Subsection

Type of Task

The MELAB vocabulary subsection is part of the larger GCVR section. There are 31 vocabulary items.

Duration

The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes.

MELAB Vocabulary Subskills

MELAB vocabulary items measure vocabulary size and tap certain in-depth aspects of vocabulary knowledge.

Design of MELAB Vocabulary Items

Format of the Input

Each MELAB vocabulary item is 1 to 2 sentences, up to 20 words total, from which a word or lexical chunk has been removed. Each MELAB vocabulary item should elicit a “tip-of-the-tongue” effect, in which test takers should ideally be able to mentally fill in the gap even before reading the options. The wording of MELAB vocabulary items is intended to reflect, as closely as possible, language use in real-life situations and provide a representative sample of different frequently observed genres in written English.

Because the two classes Helen wanted to take were being offered _______, she could only take one.

Format of the Response Options

Four answer choices are provided, one of which is the most appropriate answer for the context.

Evaluation of the MELAB Vocabulary Subsection

The GCVR section (including the vocabulary items) is scored automatically by computer. There is only one correct answer for each item. Correct answers receive one point. Incorrect answers receive zero.


Reading Subsection

The MELAB reading subsection has been designed to assess the intermediate to advanced level comprehension of a variety of prose texts of general academic or semitechnical topics written for an educated adult audience. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference.

B1: Can read straightforward factual texts on subjects related to his/her field and interest with a satisfactory level of comprehension.

B2: Can read with a large degree of independence, adapting style and speed of reading to different texts and purposes

C1: Can understand in detail lengthy, complex texts, whether or not they relate to his/her own area of specialty

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 69)

Format of the Reading Subsection

Type of Task

The MELAB reading subsection is part of the larger GCVR section. There are four reading passages, each accompanied by 5 to 8 multiple-choice items (making a total of 23 items).

Duration

The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes.

MELAB Reading Subskills

The abilities that L2 readers access when focusing on specific reading purposes are referred to as (reading) subskills. These form three subgroups of reading skills— global, local, and inferential—and include (among others):

Global
  • understanding main idea
  • identifying speaker’s purpose
  • synthesizing ideas from different parts of the text
Local
  • identifying supporting detail
  • understanding vocabulary
  • synthesizing details
  • recognizing restatement
Inferential
  • understanding rhetorical function
  • making an inference
  • inferring supporting detail
  • understanding pragmatic implications

Design of MELAB Reading Items

Format of the Input

Each MELAB reading text consists of a self-contained passage of approximately 300 words that could be found in any formal written context. It is preceded by a short, introductory sentence.

Format of the Response Options

Each reading passage is followed by 5 to 8 multiple choice items. Each item is a question with 4 possible answers.

Evaluation of the MELAB Reading Subsection

The GCVR section (including the reading items) is scored automatically by computer. There is only one correct answer for each item. Correct answers receive one point. Incorrect answers receive zero.


Writing Section

The MELAB writing section has been designed to elicit written language at the intermediate to advanced level of English. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference. The descriptors range from:

B1: Can write straightforward connected texts on a range of familiar subjects.

B2: Can write clear, detailed official and semi-official texts on a variety of subjects related to his field of interest.

C1: Can write clear, well-structured and mostly accurate texts of complex subjects.

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 61)

Format of the Writing Section

Type of Task

Test takers choose one of two essay topics to write on and are advised to write 1 to 2 pages. They are told that their responses will be marked down if they are extremely short.

Duration

The writing section lasts 30 minutes.

Skills Elicited by the MELAB Writing Task

The MELAB writing task gives test takers the opportunity to demonstrate their ability to:

  • develop a topic and organize the content;
  • make smooth connections between ideas;
  • use a variety of grammatical constructions accurately and appropriately; and
  • use a range of vocabulary accurately and appropriately.

Design of the MELAB Writing Task

Format

Prompts are generally brief, 2 to 4 sentences long, with three moves:

  • The first move is typically a general scene-setting statement that introduces the context; for example, “The use of computers in elementary school classrooms is becoming very widespread.”
  • The second move narrows the focus and presents the specific topic to be addressed; for example, “What positive and negative effects do you think this has on student learning?”
  • The third move gives instructions about how to respond; for example, “Support your views with specific examples.”

Sample Writing Tasks

Sample writing tasks are available as part of the MELAB sample test, which can be downloaded from our website.

Evaluation of the MELAB Writing Section

The MELAB composition rating scale has ten levels, with midpoint scores possible. Possible scores are:

97 87 77 67 57
95 85 75 65 55
93 83 73 63 53
90 80 70 60

MELAB compositions are read independently by two trained raters. If the two raters do not agree within one band, a third rater reads the composition. The two closest scores are averaged for the final composition score. Compositions are graded on how clearly and effectively ideas are communicated as well as on the range and accuracy of grammatical structures and vocabulary. For each score level there is a description of writing at that level.


Speaking Test

The MELAB Speaking Test has been designed to assess the test taker’s speaking and listening ability at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference:

B1: Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.; can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken.

B2: Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.

C1: Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions; can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 24)

Format of the Speaking Test

Type of Task

The MELAB Speaking Test assesses the test taker’s ability to communicate in English in a face-to-face interaction with a trained, certified, and monitored MELAB Speaking Test examiner. The examiner does not follow a set script, but rather leads a conversation in order to elicit a speech sample from the test taker.

Duration

The MELAB Speaking Test lasts 10 to 15 minutes.

Skills Elicited During the MELAB Speaking Test

Throughout MELAB Speaking Test, test takers are given the opportunity to:

  • ask and answer questions
  • describe past and future events
  • present, explain, and support opinions and decisions
  • interact in a natural conversational way (e.g., interrupting, asking for clarifications, initiating topics of interest, adapting to topic shifts)

Throughout the assessment, the examiner evaluates the test taker’s capabilities and steers the conversation to allow the test taker opportunities to use spoken language across a variety of topics and in order to achieve a variety of functions.

Evaluation of the MELAB Speaking Test

The possible scores range from 1 to 4, with 4 being the highest. A plus (+) or minus (−) may be added to the score if the examiner thinks the spoken English is between levels. For example, a 3+ would indicate that the test taker is in the 3 range but has qualities moving towards the 4 range, or a 2− would indicate that the test taker is at a 2 level but has qualities also found in the 1 range. The MELAB Speaking Test is optional and is graded separately from the rest of the MELAB exam.


A great TOEFL alternative that allows the test center more control—and fewer technology requirements for administering the test!

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